Other Governmental Surveillance Agencies
Russia has at least two official surveillance agencies. One agency,
Federal Security Service (Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti, or FSB)
not only possesses investigatory powers, but even has its own troops.
FSB also is authorized to conduct intelligence operations inside and
outside Russia to enhance "the economic, scientific-technical and defense
potential" of Russia. Thanks to regulations such as SORM
(System for Ensuring Investigated Activity), FSB essentially has
the power to monitor Internet transmissions coming in and out of Russia.
article in the (UK) Times newspaper suggests "the network is
already being abused for profit, theft and blackmail."
In addition, the
Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information (Federal'noye
agentstvo paravitel'stvennykh svyazi i informatsii, or FAPSI) apparently
has unlimited technical capabilities for monitoring communications and
gathering intelligence, including monitoring of private networks. It
too has its own troops (estimated at 54,000).
Republic of China
The People's Republic of China (PRC) created a Ministry
of State Security in 1983. Not surprisingly, one of its chief tasks
is to stop "enemy agents, spies and counterrevolutionary activities
designed to ... overthrow China's socialist system." To see a recent
news item which details some of Communist China's latest moves in cyberspace,
Germany's Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) has been engaged in intelligence
gathering for nearly fifty years. Their official website is in German.
Israel actually has at least three official intelligence-gathering organizations,
commonly known as Mossad, Shin Bet, and Aman. Mossad handles surveillance
outside of Israel, while Shin Bet conducts surveillance inside the country.
Aman is charged with military intelligence.
France's SGDN (Secretariat General de la Defense Nationale) conducts
surveillance not only for the French government, but also passes pertinent
information along to French private companies.
India's Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is tasked with "preservation
of values in public life" as well as "ensuring the health of the national
economy". Besides national security matters, CBI also coordinates investigations
Security Agency (NSA)
Communications Headquarters (GCHQ)
Security Establishment (CSE)
Signals Directorate (DSD)
Communications Security Bureau
Other surveillance systems
This Internet surveillance program, which is currently being used by
the United States government, is somewhat similar to ECHELON. Contrary
assertions, a subsequent government-commissioned review panel found
that Carnivore is indeed capable of collecting all communications over
the segment of the network being surveilled: "The results show that
all TCP communications on the network segment being sniffed were captured
by Carnivore." Moreover, the default configuration is to do just that:
"When turning on TCP full mode collection and not selecting any port,
the default is to collect traffic from all TCP ports."
Enfopol is a special document created with the blessing of a special
European Union council. It lists various "technical requirements" that
essentially would make it easier for law enforcement officials to wiretap
European communications networks. Efforts are now underway to implement
these standards in the telecommunications systems of EU member countries.
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) generally
requires telecommunications carriers both to modify their existing networks
and to design and deploy new generations of equipment (including software),
all to ensure that carriers can meet certain specified "capability"
and "capacity" requirements related to the ability of authorized government
agencies to engage in wiretapping.
Reports have indicated the existence of another NSA project that is
designed to capture computer signals (such as keystrokes or monitor
images) through walls or from other buildings, even if the computers
are not linked to a network. Details about this project, which is apparently
codenamed TEMPEST, are only just becoming available. One NSA document,
Emanations Laboratory Test Requirements, Electromagnetics", was
prepared by the NSA's Telecommunications and Information Systems Security
group. It describes test procedures for measuring the radiation emitted
from a computer -- both through radio waves and through telephone, serial,
network, or power cables attached to it. A second document the NSA released
describes the agency's "Technical
Security Program," which is responsible for assessing electronic
security and providing "technical security facility countermeasures."